Assuming this is successful, Curiosity, also known as the Mars Science Laboratory, will then begin analysing the soil and rocks for any signs that current or past environments on the planet could have supported microbial life. It has a variety of tools with which to do this, and the mission is expected to last two years.
I sincerely hope everything does go smoothly, as the data that we would receive would be astounding. I’m definitely curious to hear of the results! Onwards!